Saturday, February 8, 2020

Arms of mass Destruction and International Law Term Paper

Arms of mass Destruction and International Law - Term Paper Example Evidently, international law has a lasting association with the endeavors to manage weapons of mass destruction, which followed the development of prohibitions (treaty) on the employment of poisonous gases in war (Busch & Joyner, 2009). Three bodies on international law can be delineated as regulating WMD, namely: arms control treaties, international law guiding the use of force, and international humanitarian law. Historically, the most outstanding and direct utilization of international law in relation to WMD was via arms control treaties. This denotes international agreements fashioned to ban or limit the development, ownership, and employment of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons by states.The international law on the use of force addresses the threat or the application of force rather than the development of weapons. On the use of WMD, international law on the use of force establishes legal justifications for the alternative to force, rather than rules detailing the weapo ns states may utilize.   On the use of WMD, international humanitarian law outlines the kinds of weapons that can be employed in armed conflict such as outlawing the use of weapons that can render superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering.   Arms control treaties, on the other hand, specifically control the development of WMD and proscribe the utilization of chemical and biological weapons.   This body of international law mirrors the â€Å"arms control approach† to WMD detailing formal agreements among states to control the use and development of WMD.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Classical Education Essay Example for Free

Classical Education Essay Some people hold the view that the classics are classics because they have stood the test of time. Therefore, they are to be treasured by people of all generations, ours being no exception. Others believe that the classics represent the wisdom of the past. As we are advancing towards the future, it is our responsibility to venture into the unknown and generate new understanding of man and nature. What is your view on this issue? Write an essay in 300 – 500 words in response to this question and give reasons to support your position. Classical education is ‘ communicates to the mind †¦ a high sense of honor, a disdain of death in a good cause, and a passionate devotion to the welfare of one’s country’ , which proposed by Oxford classicist Edward Copleston. Classics studies indeed have stood the test of time and represent the wisdom of the past which treasured by all generations. Therefore, it is our responsibility to venture into the unknown and generate new understanding of man and nature. Traditionally, the study of classics was the principal study of the humanities. It is connected to the study of languages, history, art, literature, philosophy, archaeology and other culture of the ancient Mediterranean word, especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. For example, every European language today such as the Romance languages and Modern Greek was evolved and influenced by the classical language of the Ancient Mediterranean. Nevertheless, classical study now expanded to Northern Africa and Middle East. It has become our references in many different arenas and immensely contributed to our culture today which proves that classic studies have the ability to transform self’s understanding. According to Charles Augustin Sainte-Beure’s idea and belief, a true classic is an author who has enriched the human mind and revealed some eternal passion through his thought, observation, or invention. Therefore, it could be opposed by anyone since each and everyone have different thoughts and ideas influenced by their present lifestyles, culture or even discovery.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Essay --

Foreign scholars had many empirical studies on the price level and price dispersion in the E-commerce market. They were as the follows: 1) In 2000, Brown and Goolsbee had discovered that the insurance price became lower and the dispersion degree varied from high to low with the gradual perfection of the selling channel on the internet. Morton, etc. (2000) had studied the vehicle price and found out that the vehicle price online was lower than the price offline and the price dispersion varied from high to low. Erevelles, etc. (2001) took a research on the price of vitamin (health products) and discovered that the price was lower online and the price dispersion was lower than that of the traditional market. Durisin and Carimarti (2003) inspected the price of books and CDs and they came to a similar conclusion that the price of these products was lower on the internet. These scholars had taken researches on the price of books, CDs, medicine, vehicle and insurance and they observed that the utilization of internet had not only reduced the market price but also the price dispersion in E-commerce market. 2) Clay, etc.(1999) had collected the prices of over 100 kinds of books in 13 online bookstore and 2 traditional bookstore and the study results revealed that even though the average price of online bookstore and traditional bookstore were basically the same, there was an obvious price dispersion among the online bookstores[11]. Brynjolfsson and Smith (2000) had studied the prices of books and CDs online and in the entities stores and they concluded that the price in the E-commerce marker was lower than that that of the traditional market and the price dispersion degree was higher. To further their study, Clay and Tay (2002) had made a... ...led the multi-channel retailers. Many scholars had compared and studied the price and price dispersion of Dotcoms and multi-channel retailers. Pan, etc.(2002) observed that Dotcoms’ prices of CD, DVD, desktop computer and laptop were lower than that of the multi-channel retailers; Dotcoms’ prices of books and software were higher than that of the multi-channel retailers; Dotcoms’ prices of PDA and electronic products were similar to that of the multi-channel retailers. What’s more, the price divergence of these eight kinds of products declined as time went on but it always existed. Pan, etc.(2002) took another research and it illustrated that Dotcoms’ prices of clothes and ornaments, presents, flowers, health care, beauty treatment, gardening, sports, computer hardware, electronic products and the office products were lower than that of the multi-channel retailers.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Cultural Differences in the Perception of Geometric Illusions

Cultural Differences In Geometrical Perceptions The study chosen is called Cultural Differences in the Perception of Geometric Illusions. The research specifically focused on the psychological processes of depth perception and visual perspective. The first example is the Muller-Lyer illusion which is an optical illusion consisting of stylized arrows in which viewers tend to perceive one as longer than the other.The second example used is the Sanders Parallelogram in which a diagonal line bisecting the larger, left-hand parallelogram appears to be slightly longer than the diagonal line bisecting the smaller, right-hand parallelogram, but it is in fact the same length. The last example used in the stimulus is the horizontal-vertical illusion, in which observers have the tendency to perceive the vertical as longer than a horizontal line of the same length when the lines are perpendicular.All of these relate to how a subject is able to understand the spatial qualities. The researchers hy pothesize that the cultural differences between the people tested affect their perception of the lines. The researchers dispersed the tests to 14 non-European countries including those in Africa, Philippines, and America. All in all this amounted to 1,878 samples. The differences in these cultures can change from those of habitat, where some may be living in a dense, urban environment to those who live in rural land.Language may also affect how one may perceive their surroundings, another factor that differs between the test samples is the school of thought between different cultures. The result of the research showed that on both the Muller-Lyer and Sanders Parallelograms the European and American samples made significantly more illusion-produced responses than did the non-European samples. On the two horizontal-vertical illusions, the European and American samples had relatively low scores, with many of the non-Western samples scoring significantly higher.All samples appeared to b e minimally susceptible to the perspective drawing. These findings point to cross-cultural differences that perhaps can be attributed to ecological and cultural factors in the environment. For example, in the study they provide an explanation for the factor of spatial perception, they believe that if one were to live in a highly urbanized community, in which there is a high prevalence of rectangles, then the subjects are more inclined to interpret two dimensional cute and obtuse angles as representative of rectangles in three dimension drawings. This can also be the opposite, if one were to grow up in the countryside where they are exposed to large horizontal vistas, then their perceptions would change. Works Cited: Segall, Marshall, Donald T. Campbell, Melville J. Herskovits. â€Å"Cultural Differences in the Perception of Geometric Illusions. † Science, New Series, Vol. 139, No. 3556 (Feb. 22, 1963), pp. 769-771

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Reusing Plastic Bottles Can Pose Serious Health Hazards

Most types of plastic bottles are safe to reuse at least a few times if properly washed with hot soapy water. However, recent revelations about some of the toxic chemicals found in Lexan (plastic #7) bottles are enough to prevent even the most committed environmentalists from reusing them—or buying them in the first place. Studies suggest that food and drinks stored in such containers—including those ubiquitous clear water bottles hanging from just about every hiker’s backpack—can contain trace amounts of Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical that may interfere with the body’s natural hormone messaging system. Reused Plastic Bottles Can Leach Toxic Chemicals Repeated re-use of plastic bottles—which get dinged up through normal wear and tear while being washed—increases the chance that chemicals will leak out of the tiny cracks and crevices that develop in the containers over time. According to the Environment California Research Policy Center, which reviewed 130 studies on the topic, BPA has been linked to breast and uterine cancer, increased risk of miscarriage, and decreased testosterone levels. BPA can also wreak havoc on children’s developing systems. (Parents beware: Some baby bottles and sippy cups are made with plastics containing BPA.) Most experts agree that the amount of BPA that could potentially leach into food and drinks through normal handling is probably very small. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the cumulative effect of these small doses over time. Why Plastic Water and Soda Bottles Shouldnt Be Reused Health advocates advise against reusing bottles made from plastic #1 (polyethylene terephthalate, also known as PET or PETE), including most disposable water, soda, and juice bottles. According to The Green Guide, such bottles may be safe for one-time use but reuse should be avoided. Studies indicate that the containers may leach DEHP—another probable human carcinogen—when they are structurally compromised and in less than perfect condition. Millions of Plastic Bottles End Up in Landfills Every year, consumers go through millions of plastic bottles. Fortunately, these containers are easy to recycle and just about every municipal recycling system will take them back. Still, using them is far from environmentally responsible. The nonprofit Berkeley Ecology Center found that the manufacture of plastic #1 not only uses large amounts of energy and resources but also generates toxic emissions and pollutants that contribute to global warming. And even though PET bottles can be recycled, millions of them find their way into landfills every day in the United States alone. Incinerating Plastic Bottles Releases Toxic Chemicals Another bad choice for water bottles, reusable or otherwise, is plastic #3 (polyvinyl chloride/PVC), which can leach hormone-disrupting chemicals into the liquids stored in them and also release synthetic carcinogens into the environment when incinerated. Plastic #6 (polystyrene/PS) has been shown to leach styrene, a probable human carcinogen, into food and drinks as well. Safe Reusable Bottles Do Exist Plastic bottles are not the only reusable containers available to consumers. Safer choices include bottles crafted from HDPE (plastic #2), low-density polyethylene (LDPE, or plastic #4), or polypropylene (PP, or plastic #5). Aluminum and stainless steel water bottles, such as those youll find at online retailers and in many brick-and-mortar natural food markets, are safer choices that can be reused repeatedly and eventually recycled.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Othello †Justice and Passion Essay - 1872 Words

Othello is, without a doubt, one of Shakespeare’s most tragic heroes. He fills every sense of the word, beginning as a character nearly without flaws but evolving into a misled, pitiful disgrace whose sense of justice has been warped by the darkness of Iago. Even the flaws he is stricken with are those that may seem praise-worthy in some. Throughout the entirety of the play Othello has one supreme goal, subconscious or otherwise, in mind: As a general and as a man, he desires to rule militarily, socially, and romantically, with justice and without passion. This ‘passion’ refers to the calmness and balanced judgment required of such a figure as Othello. When we first meet Othello in person, he is immediately stricken as our hero. He loves†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Upon this hint I spake. She loved me for the dangers I had passed, And I loved her that she did pity them. This only is the witchcraft I have used. Here comes the lady. Let her witness it. (I.iii.166-170) What Othello says here positions the base for which Shakespeare is set to mold the audience’s emotions. Othello not only defends his relationship with Desdemona, but he defends himself, his honor. He even sets Desdemona on equal footing with him, inviting Desdemona to speak for herself against her father. This act shows the trust that Othello shares with Desdemona, the depth of their relationship. But why set up such deep and powerful emotions so early on in the play? It is because we are made to avert our eyes, scream protests in our minds, feel hatred for Iago, as Othello slowly disintegrates out of this perfect persona we are presented with. Othello follows a very backward development as a character. He begins as the most perfect we will ever see him, slowly degrading into being just as jealous and ignorant as Roderigo. Even without Iago’s dark tendrils worming their way through his mind, the cracks in Othello’s immaculate armor begin to show. As Cassio loses his temper and strikes out against Montano, Othello’s passion and anger rise, demanding to know who began the fight. My blood begins my safer guides to rule, And passion, having my best judgment collied, Assays to lead the way. Zounds, if I stir Or do but lift this arm, theShow MoreRelatedDifference of Othellos Behaviour in Act One and Act Two981 Words   |  4 PagesEnglish Literature - Othello How is Othello’s behaviour in Act Two different from his behaviour in Act One? How do you account for this change? What consequences do you think it will have? In Act One, Othello appeared to be in control of his emotions. When Brabantio confronts Othello, accusing him of stealing and raping his daughter Desdemona by means of witchcraft, Othello is calm and tells his men to stop the fighting. Although he is being accused of kidnapping and raping Desdemona, in whichRead MoreEssay on Othellos Tragic Flaw852 Words   |  4 PagesOf Shakespeare’s five greatest tragedies, Othello is by far the most passionate and gripping. It is a tale of love, deception, evil, honesty, and virtue. Othello himself is set apart from other Shakespearean tragic heroes by the absolute feeling of affection the audience feels for him even unto the very end of the play. Any discerning reader painfully recognizes the virtue and goodness of Othello throughout the entire play, in contrast to the general degeneration of character so typical of a tragicRead MoreAntigone and Othello: Tragic Heroes Essay examples957 Words   |  4 PagesOthello and Antigone are b oth tragic heroes. They do great deeds and have great power or strength. For example, Othello defeats Venices enemies. Antigone makes sure that a Theban right is a Theban due. But fatal character flaws destroy the lives of the two heroes. Both of them suffer from pride and uncontrolled passion. Othello is so proud of his integrity and courage that he doesnt recognize his violent temper and his manipulability by Iago. Antigone is so proud of her commitment to the true,Read MoreIts Complicated: Shakespeares Othello1450 Words   |  6 Pagestheir fault. In the Shakespearean play Othello, Iago is seen as a ruthless, power hungry man who wants to see Othello burn. Othello on the other hand appears to be a wise general who only has one weakness in particular: Desdemona. He is flat out head over heels for her which Iago uses to his advantage through the green eyed monster itself: jealousy. Jealousy is one of the main themes within the play, and plays a very important role in the tragic ou tcome where Othello kills Desdemona and everything unravelsRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare1741 Words   |  7 PagesShakespearean tragedy of Othello. This play demonstrates how Othello a very strong and confident warrior is turned into a paranoid psychopath when faced with the idea of being deceived by his love Desdemona. However, the true question is can Othello the warrior; truly love despite his dangerous nature? A.C. Bradley considers Othello one of Shakespeare’s most romantic character. One must determine if love and passion is the same or if they are two entities all together. Is Othello’s passion that then turnsRead MoreAp Lit- Othello Prompt-1979 Essay628 Words   |  3 Pagesthink.   Avoid plot summary. A man falls into a violent epileptic shock from sheer anger and jealousy. Othello is an aspiring man, who under delusional rage, allows revenge to blind him and so he betrays the trust of friendship and marriage. Actions alone can merit the characterization of evil simply because some deeds are too purely vicious and malignant, however William Shakespeare’s Othello creates a character of far greater intricacy than sole action- intricacy demonstrated by the developmentRead MoreEssay on Othello; Jealousy1702 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout Shakespeare’s Othello, the major theme of jealousy is apparent. The tragedy Othello focuses on the doom of Othello and the other major characters as a result of jealousy. In Shakespeare’s Othello, jealousy is portrayed through the major characters of Iago and Othello. It utterly corrupts their lives because it causes Iago to show his true self, which in turn triggers Othello to undergo an absolute conversion that destroys the l ives of their friends. Othello represents how jealousy,Read More Iago: Suffering Through Evil1471 Words   |  6 Pageshis passion of hate towards the Moor. Iago accuses Othello of having relations with his wife, and that Othello has not given him the correct rank that he has earned after years of service at Othello’s side. Iago had devoted his intelligence and efficiency to good and, from that he gained nothing. Othello gave the lieutenant ship to Cassio and thus turned Iago’s jealousy towards Cassio as well. After this, he changes his course of action to obtaining his own personal interpretation of justice. EvenRead MoreEssay on William Shakespeares Othello574 Words   |  3 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Othello The play Othello was said to have been written in 1603/4, but no one really knows. It was first performed in front of king James I. It was very original because it had a black tragic hero and at that time it was very rare too see a black character let alone a main one. The key themes are the same in most of Shakespeares plays (love, jealousy, appearance and reality, dark and light. The main theme is Othellos jealousy, which results inRead MoreEssay about Analysis of an Extract from William Shakespeares Othello980 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of an Extract from William Shakespeares Othello In the play Othello, four characters are murdered. The character Iago, who manipulated certain characters into wanting to kill them. Desdemona, Emilia, Othello, and Roderigo, are killed. Iago originally did this out of jealousy of Othello and Roderigo. The deaths of these four characters were inevitable. There was justice in this play for all of the characters who were involved in the killing of the four characters

Friday, December 20, 2019

Curriculum Definition And Definition Of Curriculum

What is Curriculum? According to Stotsky (2012), curriculum is a plan of action that is aimed at achieving desired goals and objectives. It is a set of learning activities meant to make the learner attain goals as prescribed by the educational system. Generally, it includes the subjects and activities that a given school system is responsible for. Moreover, it defines the environment where certain learning activities take place. Furthermore, curriculum defines what happens in any formal educational institution, and no school or university can exist without it. The concepts governing curriculum are dynamic in nature because of the changes that occur in everyday lives. In summary, it refers to the total learning experience not only in a†¦show more content†¦Other scholars present value oriented principles of curriculum (Glanz, 2006). In this regard, experiences of the learners are considered, apart from making decisions regarding content, process, issues, and topics. These aut hors’ perceptions regarding curriculum are both students and society centered. Curriculum exists in three forms, namely planned, enacted and experienced (Boomer, 1992). Planned Curriculum It exists in the form of planned programs, objectives, instructions, and assessments offered by schools. Mostly, planning of a curriculum takes place in five stages, which include framing, lesson planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Its characteristics include proper definition of goals, measurability of the learning objectives, and valid assessments. A curriculum is considered as planned if it systematically implements educational activities and programs. Its combination of methods and instructions makes it have a wider scope (English, 2010). Enacted Curriculum It deals with professional judgments about the type of curriculum that is ready for implementation and evaluation. As a result, teachers are assigned the responsibility of assessing the relevant pedagogical knowledge in use. However, their professional authority in actualizing the curriculum may conflict with the planned curriculum (English, 2010). Experienced Curriculum and Challenge This is what actually takes place in the classroom situation.Show MoreRelatedThe Curriculum Definitions Of Curriculum948 Words   |  4 PagesCurriculum Definitions There are numerous diverse definitions of curriculum. According to Churchill (2013), the term curriculum is stemmed from the Latin word currere, which means to run a set route or course. Many technical understandings then view curriculum as a mapping of the course to be followed by students in school. Therefore, it commonly happens when teachers are asked about curriculum, they often go to the syllabus document, which contains a set of materials, for the answer. However, GrundyRead MoreDefinition Of Curriculum And Curriculum2230 Words   |  9 PagesCurriculum is difficult to define as there is no one universal definition. Therefore the definition of curriculum will vary depending on the individual. Marsh and Willis (1995 as cited in Understanding Teaching For Learning Textbook Topic 3, p. 57) believe curriculum is ‘an interrelated set of plans and experiences that a student undertakes under the guidance of the school (p.10). Another definition is ‘the curriculum is always, in every society, a reflection of what the people think, feel, believeRead MoreCurriculum : A Definition Of Curriculum2050 Words   |  9 PagesCurriculum: A definition Defining a comprehensive concept of a curriculum can be tricky, differ, vary, and subjective attempt from person to person. In his book, Ewing (2013) believed it happens due to the background, experience, and knowledge of that individual in engaging with the curriculum. According to Galton (1998, as cited in Resh Benavot, 2009), curriculum is the organization of school subjects and the allocation of time when each subject is taught. Another definition provides by MarshRead MoreDefinition And Definition Of Curriculum1698 Words   |  7 PagesDefinition of Curriculum Paper Bevis (1989) defines nursing as a process whose main purpose is to promote optimal heath through generative, nurtrative and protective activities. These activities are always carried out with three client systems namely; community, intrapersonal and interpersonal system. The term curriculum in nursing can be defined as planned learning experience that the educational institutions plan to present to its learners. Educational institutions are charged with the role ofRead MoreDefinition Of Curriculum For Education Curriculum906 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Curriculum has many definitions in the realm of education. Some people view curriculum as a specific structure of assignments and standards that must be mastered by all students while others view curriculum as a means to an end result. Ornstein and Hunkins (2013) define curriculum as being several different things: a plan for achievement, based on student schema, a way to handle others, a program of study, and content based on levels. It is interesting to read a text written specificallyRead MoreDefinition Curriculum : A Curriculum1042 Words   |  5 PagesImplied Curriculum Lori Riley Liberty University Every school plans a curriculum that describes what teachers are expected to follow. This curriculum will have an impact on students, but an educator’s implied curriculum may have a greater impact on their students than what they realize. McCutcheon (1988) states, â€Å"hidden curriculum† is created by the educator, as they inevitably will pass on their values when teaching (p. 198). Educators do not always intend on teaching an implied curriculum butRead MoreA Formal Definition Of Curriculum3086 Words   |  13 PagesCurriculum A formal definition of curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes and its purpose is to prepare the student to thrive with the society as it is (Ebert, Ebert, Bentley, 2013). Curriculum is a very important piece of education and how it is defined determines the influence it can have over the experiences of the students. It goes deeper than just deciding what to teach and encompasses moreRead MoreMy Personal Definition For School Curriculum Essay1677 Words   |  7 Pages The meaning of the term’ curriculum’ is difficult to define. For school, Pratt (in Brady and Kennedy, 2014, p. 3) argues that curriculum can be ‘an organized set of formal educational and training intentions’. For students, Marsh and Wills (in Brady and Kennedy, 2014, p. 3) maintain that curriculum is ‘an interrelated set of plans and experiences that a student undertakes under the gu idance of the school’, while for teachers, the challenge is to develop curricula that will cater for the needs ofRead MoreDefinition Of Current Sex Ed Curriculum1104 Words   |  5 PagesChloe Sullivan Ford, Period 3 2/20/15 Current Sex Ed Curriculum If you don’t want your kids to drown in the pool, don’t teach them to swim, hide all of the life jackets, and let’s pretend water doesn’t exist. This is the general underlying concept of the Abstinence-only programs taught in schools across the country. Abstinence-only curriculums are taught in thirty-seven states and is considered the most common method when instructing sex education. I wouldn’t call education though, seeing that onlyRead MoreCurriculum and Professional Issues1444 Words   |  6 Pagesto these institutions is the prevalence of curriculum reform through planning and informed development. (A.V Kelly, 2004) There are various ways in which curriculum has been defined, Curriculum can be taken to mean the quintessence of a syllabus of learning and includes philosophy, substance, strategies and assessment. Although syllabus often implies greater definition of what the curriculum may contain. A classic example is that the term curriculum was developed from the Latin word for racecourse